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What is a review article

What is a review article?

A review article, also called a literature review, is a survey of previously published research on a topic. It should give an overview of current thinking on the theme and, unlike an original research article, won’t present new experimental results.

The objective of a literature review is to provide a critical evaluation of the data available from existing studies. Review articles can identify potential research areas to explore next, and sometimes they will draw new conclusions from the existing data.

Why you should try writing for money

Writing online for money is so popular today because it allows people to have a flexible lifestyle and still earn a living. Here are the biggest benefits of such a job:

  • It is easy to find a job, as there is always demand for writers, mainly, from online businesses who need to constantly update content on their websites.
  • It pays well. Salaries depend on the niche and author’s skills. Thus, finance, cryptocurrency, travel, digital marketing and education might be the most profitable niches in 2021.
  • It doesn’t require academic qualifications to start off. There are plenty of courses and books on the internet and in stores that can teach you writing from scratch.
  • There is always a variety of topics to escape exhausting routine and educate yourself along the way.
  • You can work from anywhere in the world and even travel in the meantime.
  • No need to spend time commuting from home to work and vice versa.
  • Depending on the country, you can enjoy tax advantages as an independent contractor or self-employed individual.

How to Write an Introduction for a Research Paper

Start writing an intro. The introductory paragraph should begin with an attention grabber that may be:

 ★ a provocative question;

You are writing an academic paper but that doesn’t mean you have to be boring. Next, you need to provide the background information, explain your goals, and how you plan to approach your research paper topic. You should finish your introduction with your thesis statement or research question. This section of your paper is not long so you are sure to finish it fast.

Matching against multiple elements with Python structural pattern matching

The key to working most effectively with pattern matching is not just to use it as a substitute for a dictionary lookup. It’s to describe the structure of what you want to match. This way, you can perform matches based on the number of elements you’re matching against, or their combination.

Here’s a slightly more complex example. Here, the user types in a command, optionally followed by a filename.

Let’s examine these cases in order:

  • case [«quit»]: tests if what we’re match ing against is a list with just the item «quit» , derived from splitting the input.
  • case [«load», filename]: tests if the first split element is the string «load» , and if there’s a second string that follows. If so, we store the second string in the variable filename and use it for further work. Same for case [«save», filename]: .
  • case _: is a wildcard match. It matches if no other match has been made up to this point. Note that the underscore variable, _ , doesn’t actually bind to anything; the name _ is used as a signal to the match command that the case in question is a wildcard. (That’s why we refer to the variable command in the body of the case block; nothing has been captured.)

The key elements of design briefs

A sample brief can come in a variety of sizes and forms depending on the type of the project. But there are common elements of any effective design brief. Here’s all you need to know about it.

1. The profile of the company

This section should contain an overview of the client’s business. It will help the working team to understand the client and the brand.

All the details should be mentioned here, including the name, products lines, industry features, etc. Brand mission and the list of competitors may be also included.

2. Project overview

This section should include the project description with all the possible details and view on the scope and scale of the project. You should clarify if your customer builds something new or redesigns something that already exists.

3. Objectives/goals

A project purpose should be a clear and measurable statement of the business outcomes the project is supposed to achieve. It should highlight the expectations of what you hope to achieve.

The project may never be implemented because there are no clear goals and objectives.

4. Target audience

In many cases, it’s extremely important to develop a solid understanding of the users who will be interacting with the product. You can be provided with relevant research about the customer’s target audience. But sometimes you will need to do your own research.

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This audience research should consist of users’ age, gender, habits, and preferences.

For example, the global project purpose is to review, redesign and extend one of the websites.

What you really need is to refresh the design, improve the quality of content and implement a content plan, increase revenue with the help of online shopping, etc.

The mission of the site is to inform people who interested in seeking information about the customer’s product (let it be medical equipment). The secondary purpose is to increase revenue.

The site should be a helpful communication tool and should achieve the following objectives:

  • to promote the positive image of the company and the equipment;
  • to help seeking required information through case studies and articles;
  • to create an information channel for the audience;
  • to provide information to partners and sponsors;
  • to generate revenue through online sales;
  • to improve efficiency with online selling tickets to medical events.

Creative brief examples, GanttPRO review

A project brief template vs a creative brief template: is it any difference?

A creative brief template for projects

Both documents serve as communication means between clients and the team. Creative brief questions look also the same as project brief questions. But they nevertheless have some differences.

  • A project brief is mostly used for IT projects. It is usually focused on technical matters: schedules, deliverables, timetables, and logistics.
  • A creative brief is created through interviews and negotiations between customers and creative teams before the project starts (an advertising or a logo creative brief). This kind of brief defines how to connect with the audience by defining their needs and motivations. The creative brief is used specifically in projects that require some kind of creative strategy such as branding campaigns, ad activities, marketing, graphic design, etc.

Here’s a sample creative brief example:

Hoe to write a creative project brief (template)?

How to write a creative brief? The example of image video creating for GanttPRO

Task title: Christmas video

Organization name: Gantt Chart Software – GanttPRO

Date: December 1

1. Project overview

We need an interesting and viral video about GanttPRO service and team, which will describe the latest updates and features and wish our clients Merry Christmas. The main goal of the video is to become closer to our customers.

Our objectives are:

  • to thank for using the service;
  • to show that we support our users and know all their achievements and difficulties;
  • to tell about future plans;
  • to wish them Merry Christmas and Happy New Year.

2. Deliverables needed

To write a scenario, to initiate the design, to describe backstage issues, to prepare all adapted copies for external and internal channels.

3. Company background

  • What do we do? We propose Gantt Charts online service for project managers.
  • What’s our business story? We started to offer our service a year ago and now we have more than 140K active users from all over the world. We started as a small startup with 2 developers. The detailed information about our product can be found on our official website and YouTube channel .
  • Who are your competitors or who you might be compared with? All Gantt Chart-oriented services such as MS Project.

4. Audience

The primary audience we are trying to reach manages its projects in IT, construction, educational and financial spheres.

5. Message

The main message the audience should be left with: Our service really helps in management and significantly assists in implementing great projects. We think highly of our customers and take care of them. (Plus beautiful and sincere congratulations on Christmas).

6. Tone

Sincere video with a customer-oriented message, non-formal.

7. Budget

Tbd. We can maintain the budget in the budget planner.

How great briefs help to build project charts and timelines

After receiving the competently filled brief, project managers can transfer project information into their timelines and charts. On the basis of the good brief, it is easy to make a project plan using friendly Gantt charts templates. You can export your Gantt charts to pdf, xlsx, xml or png files.

How to export Gantt Charts in GanttPRO

GanttPRO tools for project management will assist you to continue your work with the brief.

Here you can find some useful info about Gantt charts:

Research paper outline

Now that you know how to start your research paper, you’re probably wondering how to keep going. Be sure that you have found a worthy research paper topic before passing to the next level. Just like with essays, the outline is everything. It’s a formula you use to write about any topic and still get a well-structured paper that your professor will love.

The general outline for research paper consists of the following:

  • Introduction (explained above)
  • Body – the central part of the paper and includes context or general information about the subject, existing arguments, detailed research. Here you can also include your argument, but only if a professor specifies it when sending out assignments. As mentioned above, research papers are usually concerned with facts, not opinions
  • Conclusion – summary of main points, why the subject matters
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Example: Here’s how the general outline would look if were writing about Shakespeare:

  1. Introduction
  2. Body – Shakespeare’s early life, marriage, works, later years
  1. Early life, family, marriage to Anne Hathaway, references to his marriage in poems he wrote
  2. Shakespeare’s works: tragedies, comedies, histories, sonnets, other poems
  3. Later years: last two plays, retired to Stratford, death, burial, epitaph on this tombstone
  1. Conclusion

It is important to bear in mind that every new idea, in this case, an aspect of Shakespeare’s life and work, requires a separate paragraph.

To simplify, use the following diagram when you have to work on a research paper.

The purpose of a research paper outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before the writing process commences. Since I’ve already shown how to write the introduction, it’s time to give a few pointers for the body and conclusion of your work. So, here we go:

  • Assume that your reader isn’t familiar with the topic and start with basic info first. Imagine you’re reading a paper for a five-year-old. Give background, historical context, etc. You don’t have to go into the tiniest details, mentioning something useful, memorable will do the trick too
  • It’s useful to research and include opinions of other, respected historical figures about your topic. For example, what other authors had to say about Shakespeare
  • Don’t forget about conflicting views e.g. some people didn’t like Shakespeare and thought he was a fraud, it’s useful to mention that as well. Regardless of the topic, there are always pro- and anti- opinions, mention both sides
  • Only include information you can support with reliable and trustworthy evidence. Don’t use Wikipedia, blogs and such, go for journals, books, respected websites, it all depends on the topic of course
  • Give credit where credit is due, don’t forget to cite your sources
  • The overall tone of your paper should be formal, don’t be scared to demonstrate your vast vocabulary skills
  • Avoid wordiness, sentences should be concise. Every word you use should only contribute to the overall meaning of a sentence. Don’t use “fluff” just meet the word count
  • When writing conclusions, briefly mention the most important arguments or research, explain the importance of the subject and what we can learn from it.

Step 4: Outline your literature review’s structure

There are various approaches to organizing the body of a literature review. You should have a rough idea of your strategy before you start writing.

Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies (for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically).


The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order.

Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred.


If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic.

For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access.


If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods, you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example:

  • Look at what results have emerged in qualitative versus quantitative research
  • Discuss how the topic has been approached by empirical versus theoretical scholarship
  • Divide the literature into sociological, historical, and cultural sources


A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework. You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts.

You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research.

Writer.Поиск и замена: Часто задаваемые вопросы

Чтобы удалить все мягкие переносы, выделите какой-нибудь один мягкий перенос, нажмите Ctrl F, и нажмите «заменить всё» (поле для замены оставьте пустым).

Как заменить начертание шрифта в выделенном фрагменте, чтобы все символы одного шрифта стали другого цвета?


Диалог «Найти и заменить», использовать кнопку «Формат» и регулярное выражение.

Как пробелы в числах заменить на неразрывные пробелы?

В тексте разряды в числах разделяются пробелами. Для замены всех пробелов в числах на неразрывный пробел нужно воспользоваться заменой с регулярными выражениями.

  • Для этого в диалоге «Найти и заменить» нужно нажать кнопку «Больше параметров» и установить флажок «регулярные выражения». Затем
  • — в строке поиска ввести ([:digit:]) ([:digit:]<3>)
  • — в строке замены ввести $1 $2

Примечание: В данном диалоге нельзя непосредственно ввести символ «неразрывный пробел». Но его можно предварительно ввести в документ, вырезать в документе и вставить в нужном месте в строке поиска или замены. Таким образом в строке $1 $2 на самом деле не пробел, а именно «неразрывный пробел».

Как найти символы абзаца, разрыва строки, табуляции?

Для поиска таких символов необходимо использовать регулярные выражения. В диалоге поиска и замены регулярные выражения включаются через «Дополнительные настройки».

Используйте для поиска следующие регулярные выражения:

  • символ разрыва строки — «n«, однако при использовании в поле замены это выражение будет обозначать символ абзаца;
  • символ абзаца — «$«;
  • символ табуляции — «t«.

Подробнее см.: система помощи, закладка «Индекс», искомое выражение — «регулярные выражения;список».

Tip.pngСм. также AltSearch — замечательный диалог поиска и замены

Как заменить символы разрыва строки на символы абзаца?

Как сказано выше для поиска таких символов используются регулярные выражения (взведите флаг «Регулярное выражение» ).

Часто возникает задача заменить в тексте, например взятом из окна браузера, символы «n» на символы абзаца для более корректного форматирования текста.

Попытка поставить в качестве замены символ «$» (конец абзаца) ни к чему хорошему, кроме вставки собственно символа «$«, не приводит !

Как оказалось диалог поиска находит эти символы «n«, но и в качестве замены, в нашем случае, тоже надо указывать «n« !!

Как составлять регулярные выражения?

Общие принципы написания регулярных выражений описаны в этой статье:Регулярные_выражения

В ООо реализована поддержка регулярных выражений в поиске и замене. Для их использования ознакомьтесь со Списком регулярных выражений.

Как преобразовать тексты, набранные в старых текстовых (DOS), где в конце каждой строки стоят Enter’ы

Такие тексты характерны тем, что разделителями «абзацев» являются пустые абзацы.

  1. В этом случае нужно найти эти «истинные» разделители абзацев. Для этого регулярными выражениями заменить «символ абзаца в начале строки» на не встречающуюся в данном документе последовательность символов. Например «QWERTYTREWQ». Производится поиск «символа абзаца в начале строки». Регулярное выражение для этого (строка Найти): ^$ В строке Заменить вводим QWERTYTREWQ
  2. Далее — заменяем все символы абзаца на пробел. Т.е. в случае с «¶» — искать надо ‘
    . Регулярное выражение для этого (строка Найти): $ В строке Заменить просто нажимаем ПРОБЕЛ.
  3. Далее — делаем обратную замену «QWERTYTREWQ» на символ абзаца. Регулярное выражение для этого (строка Найти): QWERTYTREWQ В строке Заменить вводим n

Если же переносы строк в абзацах отформатированы «мягким переводом строки» (Shift-Enter), то второй шаг немного меняется. В этом случае регулярное выражение в строке Найти будет n В строке Заменить так же просто нажимаем ПРОБЕЛ.

Как узнать количество символов в документе без пробелов?

Для подсчёта слов и символов в документе используется команда Сервис — Количество слов   (выводятся данные по выделенному фрагменту (фрагментам) и по всему документу). Используйте для поиска регулярное выражение «[:space:]*» (любое количество идущих подряд пробелов) и кнопку «Найти все«. Искомое количество непробельных символов получите в результате вычитания двух значений.

Как найти/заменить двойной пустой абзац? Я уже знаю про регулярные выражения, но всё равно не получается

Выдержка из помощи по регулярным выражениям: «Осуществлять поиск регулярных выражений можно только в пределах одного абзаца. То есть, поиск одного выражения в одном абзаце, а в следующем абзаце — другого выражения невозможен.«

Но решение есть:

  • можно использовать промежуточные подстановки. Например: заменить сначала все ^$ на «ABZ», а потом искать/обрабатывать «ABZABZ».
Documentation note.pngВнимание! Весь документ окажется в одном параграфе, а у существует ограничение на величину параграфа, не применяйте такой метод к объемным документам.
  • можно воспользоваться макросом из книги «Useful Macro Information For OpenOffice By Andrew Pitonyak»
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Пишу диалог, с новой строки после табуляции ставлю «—«(длинное тире), дописываю абзац, жму ентер — выскакивает меню маркированного списка. Как отключить?

Сервис — Автозамена — Параметры   

или использовать CTRL+Z

Автозамена подставляет длинное тире вместо среднего.

Если в свойствах абзаца стоит русский или украинский языки, то минус заменится на длинное тире (em dash), по правилам типографики. В остальных языках используется среднее тире (en dash)

Отменить автозамену можно, используя CTRL+Z

Если в MS Word на выделенном слове зайти в контекстное меню, то там есть пункт «Синонимы». Есть ли что-нибудь подобное в ОО?

Выберите команду Сервис — Язык — Тезаурус   

Как менять варианты, предлагаемые функцией автодополнения?

Если в списке слов для автодополнения есть более одного варианта, нажмите клавиши CTRL+TAB для прокрутки доступных слов. Для прокрутки в обратном направлении используйте клавиши CTRL+SHIFT+TAB.

Посмотреть список вариантов можно через Сервис — Автозамена — Дополнение слов.   

зарезервированы KDE для переключения между рабочими столами —Helen 17:09, 27 September 2007 (CEST)


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